Ilizarov method exploits the plasticity of musculoskeletal structures that becomes manifest under appropriate conditions. With Ilizarov apparatus one can restore anatomic alignment of the locomotor system, control rehabilitation, and influence the shape forming processes of limb tissues. These techniques shorten treatment time and improve the management and outcome of many orthopedic disorders. One can cure injuries, diseases and deformities previously considered incurable. This method reduces the trauma or surgical exposure as well as the number of operations. Many of the procedures can be done percutaneously.
Instruments and their use
The main support components are half rings , arches, and long connecting plates . The auxilary support components include shorter straight connecting plates , curved plates , twisted plates , and posts with either a threaded end or a threaded hole.
Wires come with or without beads. Wire fixator’s are either clamps, with a solid frame or an open frame , or bolts . The treaded rods come in solid and telescopic models. Additional connecting elements include bushings , threaded sockets , serrated washers , circular and semicircular plain washers, lock washers , bolts , and nuts.
Distraction osteogenesis – A break is made in the bone, and gradual distraction of this bone results in new bone formation. Initially, the distraction gives rise to neovascularisation which is what stimulates new bone formation. Simultaneously, histogenesis of muscle, nerves and skin occurs. The bone rapidly remodels to normal structure, even in bone which is skeletally mature.
Corticotomy -This is a procedure in which the cortex of the bone is cut, leaving the blood supplies intact. These are the most important elements for osteogenesis. After a delay of 5 to 10 days, distraction is begun by turning the nuts. Osteogenesis occurs in this gap as the distraction continues. Once the distraction is stopped, the frame remains attached to allow the new bone to harden.
Nonunion With Bone Gaps or Segmental Defects